Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy (BPH) is benign growth of the prostate gland that most often occurs with age. Increased prostate size may have no consequence or may result in a spectrum of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). With prostate growth the outflow of urine from the bladder may become partially or completely obstructed within the portion of the urethra that passes through the prostate (the prostatic urethra). Common symptoms that result can include frequent urination, more urgent need to void, awakening at night to urinate, slowing of the urinary stream, a sensation of incomplete emptying of the bladder or an inability to urinate altogether. Some additional consequences of benign prostate enlargement causing outlet obstruction from the bladder may include poor bladder muscle function, bladder stone formation, urinary tract infection and bladder diverticulae.
There are many medical and surgical treatments of BPH and associated LUTS. Medical treatments are often utilized as a first line approach. When these fail or do not adequately relieve symptoms, surgical options may be indicated. Additionally when related conditions such as bladder stones, recurrent urinary tract infection or prostatitis, benign prostate bleeding, or changes in the bladder wall are present, surgical treatment of BPH may be necessary electively or urgently.
Surgical treatment of the enlarged prostate with LUTS include both office-based and hospital procedures. They all have the goal of reducing prostate size and relieving the outflow obstruction of urine from the bladder caused by BPH. When hospital-based surgical treatments are indicated, options include transurethral resection of prostate (TURP) and simple prostatectomy.