Bladder cancer is a cancer of the lining of the bladder wall, the urothelium. This urothelium is composed of cells called transitional cells and specifically bladder cancer is transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. The treatment of bladder cancer is highly dependent upon the grade of the lesion, low or high grade, and the stage, superficial or invasive. Many bladder cancers can be treated by endoscopic resection (transurethral resection of bladder tumor – TURBT) with or without subsequent topical treatments that are administered into the bladder on a weekly basis (i.e. BCG intravesicle therapy). When a bladder cancer invades the bladder muscle, or in cases of high-grade superficial cancers that do not respond to transurethral resection and intravesicletherapy, bladder removal is often necessary. In many instances this is performed after neoadjuvantsystemic chemotherapy (dose-dense MVAC). Surgery for bladder removal can be performed via a robotic approach. See Robotic Cystectomy for more information.