Testicular cancer effects men of all ages however is most common in young adults in their twenties and thirties and then peaks again in older men in their sixties. There are many different types of testicular cancer. The majority are germ cell tumors, including seminoma and non-seminomatous or mixed germ cell tumors. Less common tumors not of germ cell origin include Leydig and Sertoli cell tumors.
The initial treatment of all testicular tumors entails removal of the affected testicle (radical orchiectomy). This is important for treatment and staging of the disease. If there is spread of the cancer to the lymph nodes treatment may then entail radiation therapy, systemic chemotherapy or surgical removal of the lymph nodes. In some instances surgery and chemotherapy are both required. Removal of the lymph nodes affected by testicular cancer is called retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND). This procedure can be done through either an open or robotic approach. The decision regarding surgery and the approach is dependent upon several factors specific to each patient. See Other Robotic Procedures for more information.