Ureteral stricture is a narrowing of the ureter that leads to urinary obstruction (blockage of urine) and hydronephrosis (swelling of the kidney). There are many causes for ureteral stricture including infection, urinary calculi, cancer, and both urologic and non-urologic surgeries. Depending on the cause for the stricture, treatment may include temporary ureteral stent placement followed by balloon dilation or laser incision. In other instances the affected portion of the ureter may need to be removed and urinary reconstruction performed. This can be in the form of many different reconstructive procedures including ureteroureterostomy (primary connection of two ends of healthy ureter), distal ureterectomy and reimplant/psoas hitch, ureterectomy and Boari flap, ileal ureter, or ureterocalycostomy to name a few. These surgeries can be performed through a robotic approach. See Robotic Upper Urinary Tract Reconstruction for more information.